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1. Hormonal Contraception

There are many variations of hormonal contraception available to the public. Some examples include oral contraceptive pills (OCP), combined estrogen and progesterone and progesterone only, hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs), the patch, vaginal ring, and the progesterone only injection. 

These methods work by regulating the hormones (estrogen and progesterone) in your body to prevent pregnancy, and control symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, irregular periods, acne, and pain with menstruation. The choice of hormonal contraception is based on patient preference and medical needs. Timeline of use for these methods include  3-8 years for the IUD, an injection every 3 months, or daily use for OCPs. 

2. Non-hormonal Contraception

Non-hormonal contraception options include the Copper IUD. This option is essential for those who cannot be given hormonal contraception due to medical risk factors. Some of these risk factors include breast cancer, heart disease, and genetic conditions. It also helps avoid common side effects of the hormonal options. 

Additional to regular contraceptive use, the copper IUD is an important form of emergency contraception that can be used up to 5 days after unprotected sexual activity. Price ranges from $50-150. The choice to use non- hormonal contraception depends on patient preference and medical needs, and may not be suitable for everyone. 

3. Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) 

Types of Long Acting Reversible Contraception includes IUDs, hormonal and copper. These methods of contraception are the longest acting - lasting 3-8 years for effective protection from pregnancy. Hormonal IUDs release the hormone progesterone directly into the uterus and help reduce side effects. The copper IUD is effective in blocking the process of conception. Both methods require a medical provider to insert the IUD and cost about $350 upfront. The IUD remains in the uterus for the duration of effectiveness and can be removed at any point by a medical provider should you wish to conceive. 

4. Emergency Contraception 

Emergency Contraception is a form of pregnancy prevention that is used after unprotected sexual activity. Forms of emergency contraception include a hormonal one time pill or the insertion of a copper IUD. The emergency contraception pill is effective up to 72 hours after unprotected intercourse, while the copper IUD is effective up to 5 days post encounter. These methods of contraception do come with side effects and the choice is dependant on patient preference and medical needs. 

Emergency contraception is essential for those who do not wish to have an unplanned pregnancy, have had a failure of contraception, or are sexual assault survivors. 

Types of Contraception, Methods, and Efficacy

Oral Contraception Pill (combined hormones):

  • Take 1 pill daily

  • >92% effective in preventing pregnancy

  • $15-30 monthly 

The Progesterone Injection: 

  • 1 injection every 12 weeks 

  • 94% effective in preventing pregnancy 

  • $40 per injection 

Progesterone Oral Contraceptive: 

  • Take 1 pill daily 

  • 91% effective in preventing pregnancy

  • $15-30 monthly 

Implantable Contraception:

  • 3 years (inserted by provider) 

  • 99.9% effective in preventing pregnancy 

  • $330 

Hormonal IUD: 

  • 5-8 years (inserted by provider)

  • 99.8% effective in preventing pregnancy

  • $350-400

Copper IUD (non-hormonal):

  • 3-10 years (inserted by provider) 

  • 99.2% effective in preventing pregnancy 

  • Used for emergency contraception 

  • $50-150 

Contraceptive Chart SOGC.jpg
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